O Governo do Filósofo

  • Luiz Maurício Bentim da Rocha Menezes Instituto Federal do Triângulo Mineiro
Keywords: Plato, politics, Republic, justice

Abstract

According to Glaucon’s conception of justice, the government is constituted by a contract which determines the legal and the just. From its constitution the ruler may control the subjects’ justice without being subject to the contract himself. To reinforce Thrasymachus’ speech Glaucon will offer Socrates a challenge where the latter has to prove that justice is superior to injustice. Thus, it is Socrates’ task to show this under any counterfactual circumstance, always bringing benefit to the one who acts justly. The difficulty in responding to the challenge proposed by Glaucon is shown by the case in the Republic where the fulfillment of justice seems not to bring benefits, but penalty to the agent. This is precisely the case of the Philosopher Ruler and his coercion (ananke) to rule. For that one must understand the reason why the philosopher is coerced to rule, not as a matter of choice, but something whose denial is made impossible due to justice. Socrates’ solution to the challenge of justice starts from the definitions of political justice, where each citizen is compelled to do his own duty, and psychic justice, defined as a harmony between the parts of the soul. Our argument shows that the justice within the philosopher’s soul itself is justified by the necessity of fulfilling the justice in Kallipolis, as well as allowing good government.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Andrew, E. Descent to the Cave. The Review of Politics, v. 45, n. 4, p. 510-535, 1983. http://doi.org/10.1524/phil.1968.112.12.121

Arends, F. Plato as a problem-solver. The unity of the polis as a key to the interpretation of Plato’s Republic. In: Ostenfeld, E. N. Essays on Plato’s Republic. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 1998, p. 28-41.

Aristóteles. Metafísica, v. 2. Edição de Giovanni Reale. São Paulo: Edições Loyola, 2002.

Aronson, S. H. The Happy Philosopher – A Counterexample to Plato’s Proof. Journal of the History of Philosophy, v. 10, p. 383-398, 1972. https://doi.org/10.1353/hph.2008.1718

Barney, R. Eros and Necessity in the Ascent from the Cave. Ancient Philosophy, v. 28, p. 1-16, 2008. https://doi.org/10.5840/ancientphil200828221

Beatty, J. Plato's Happy Philosopher and Politics. The Review of Politics, v. 38, n. 4, p. 545-575, 1976. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0034670500032575

Brown, E. Justice and Compulsion for Plato's Philosopher-Rulers. Ancient Philosophy, v. 20, p. 1-17, 2000. https://doi.org/10.5840/ancientphil200020111

Brown, E. Minding the Gap in Plato's Republic. Philosophical Studies, v. 117, n. 1-2, p. 275-302, 2004. https://doi.org/10.5840/ancientphil200020111

Cooper, J. M. Plato’s Theory of Human Motivation. History of Philosophy Quarterly, v. 1, n. 1, p. 3-21, 1984.

Ferrari, G. R. F. (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Plato’s Republic, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1017/CCOL0521839637

Ferrari, G. R. F. City and Soul in Plato’s Republic. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2005.

Fine, G. (Ed.). Plato2. Ethics, Politics, Religion, and the Soul. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Foster, M. B. Some Implications of a Passage in Plato’s Republic . Philosophy, v. 11, n. 43, p. 301-308, 1936. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0031819100068893

Guinsburg, J. A República de Platão. Organização e Tradução de J. Guinsburg. Rio de Janeiro: Perspectiva, 2006.

Halper, E. C. Knowledge of the Whole. In: Notomi, N.; Brisson, L. Dialogues on Plato’s Politeia (Republic). Sankt Augustin: Academia Verlag, 2013, p. 252-256.

Irwin, T.H. Classical Philosophy: Collected Papers, v. 3 – Plato’s Ethics. New York, London: Garland Publishing, 1995.

Kahn, C. H. Plato's Theory of Desire. The Review of Metaphysics, v. 41, n. 1, p. 77-103, 1987. Kraut, R. Return to the Cave: Republic 519-521. In: Fine, G. (Ed.). Plato2. Ethics, Politics, Religion, and the Soul. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 235-254.

Mahoney, T. A. Do Plato's Philosopher-Rulers Sacrifice Self-Interest to Justice?. Phronesis, v. 37, n. 3, p. 265-282, 1992. https://doi.org/10.1163/156852892321052524

Mcpherran, M. L. Plato’s Republic. A critical guide. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511763090

Nichols, M. P. The Republic's Two Alternatives: Philosopher-Kings and Socrates. Political Theory, v. 12, n. 2, p. 252-274, 1984. https://doi.org/10.1177/0090591784012002007

Notomi, N.; Brisson, L. Dialogues on Plato’s Politeia (Republic). Sankt Augustin: Academia Verlag, 2013.

Oliveira, C. E. S. P. de. Metade vale mais que tudo: A Sabedoria Hesiódica na República de Platão. Minas Gerais: UFMG, 2013. 242 f. Tese (Doutorado em Filosofia).

Ostenfeld, E. N. Essays on Plato’s Republic. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 1998.

Payne, A. The Division of Goods and Praising Justice for itself in Republic II. Phronesis, v. 56, p. 58-78, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1163/156852811x540428

Pereira, M. H. R. A República. Tradução de Maria Helena da Rocha Pereira. 9.a ed. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 2001.

Reeve, C. D. C. Goat-Stags, Philosopher-Kings, and Eudaimonism. Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy, v. 22, p. 185–209, 2006.

Schofield, M. Plato Political Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Schofield, M. Saving the City. Philosopher-Kings and other classical paradigms. London; New York: Routledge, 1999. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203201817

Sedley, D. Philosophy, the Forms, and the Art of Ruling. In: Ferrari, G. R. F. (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Plato’s Republic, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007, p. 256–283. https://doi.org/10.1017/CCOL0521839637.010

Slings, S. R. Platonis Rempvblicam, recognovit brevique adnotatione critica instrvxit: S. R. Slings. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Smith, N. D. “Return to the Cave”. In: Mcpherran, M. L. Plato’s Republic. A critical guide. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010, p. 83-102.

Strauss, L. The City and Man. Chicago, London: University of Chicago Press, 1964.

Taft, R. The Role of Compulsion in the Education of Plato’s Philosopher-King. Auslegung, v.9, n. 3, p. 311-332, 1982. https://doi.org/10.17161/ajp.1808.9046

Vegetti, M. Platone. La Repubblica. Traduzione e commento a cura di Mario Vegetti. Napoli: Bibliopolis, 1998-2007, 7v.

Vernezze, P. The Philosopher’s Interest. Ancient Philosophy, v. 12, n. 2, p. 331-349, 1992. https://doi.org/10.5840/ancientphil19921226

Wagner, E. Compulsion Again in the Republic. Apeiron, v. 38, n. 3, p. 87-101, 2005. https:// doi.org/10.1515/apeiron.2005.38.3.87

White, N. P. The Ruler’s Choice. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie, v. 68, n. 22, p. 22-46, 1986.

Published
2019-08-10
How to Cite
Menezes, L. M. (2019). O Governo do Filósofo. Journal of Ancient Philosophy, 13(1), 40-73. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.1981-9471.v13i1p40-73
Section
Articles