A Vergonha Filosófica contra a Adulação Retórica no Górgias de Platão

  • Luiz Eduardo Freitas Universidade de São Paulo (USP)
Keywords: Plato, Shame, Gorgias

Abstract

In this article I intend to show how three different aspects of the Gorgias are interconnected: (1) The criticism towards Athenian rhetoric and pleasure versus the defense of a philosophical way of life, expressed through Socrates' theses and discussions with his interlocutors; (2) The dialogue's dramatic background and the refutations of Socrates' greedy interlocutors through shame; (3) Socrates' long discourses at the end of the dialogue, in which he admits the possibility of a good rhetoric and narrates how a punitive system would work in the afterlife. In order to do so, I first highlight Socrates' rebuttal of the relations between rhetoric and knowledge as well as pleasure and good through the inversion of common Athenian values (I). Secondly, I analyze how the dramatic devices of the dialogue function to show Socrates shaming his interlocutors (II and III). Finally, by analyzing the final myth and Socrates' final speeches (IV and V) I propose a new interpretation to the obscure suggestions of a good rhetoric in the final part of the dialogue: in the good rhetoric exhibited by Plato in the Gorgias, pleasure and adulation are substituted by the production of pain and shame.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Beversluis, J. (2000). Cross-examining Socrates: a defense of the interlocutors in Plato's early dialogues. Cambridge University Press.

Burnet, J. (1968). Platonis Opera, Tomus III, Oxford University Press.

Brickhouse T. C.; Smith, N. D. (2010). Socratic Moral Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cooper, J. M. (ed.). (1997). Plato – Complete Works. Cambridge: Hackett.

Cooper, J. M. (1999). Reason and Emotion: Essays on Ancient Moral Psychology and Ethical Theory. Princeton: Princeton University Press

Dodds, E. R. (1990). Plato – Gorgias. A Revised Text with Introduction and Commentary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Edmonds III, R. G. (2012). “Whip Scars on the Naked Soul: Myth and Elenchos in Plato's Gorgias” In : Collobert, Destrée & Gonzalez, Brill (org.). Platonic Myths: Studies on the Use and Status of Platonic Myths. Leiden: Brill, p. 165-186. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004224360_011

Freitas, L. E. (2018). A imagem do kinaidos no Górgias de Platão. Archai, n. 23, May-Aug., p. 77-107. https://doi.org/10.14195/1984-249x_23_3

Guthrie, W. K. C. (1975). A History of Greek Philosophy. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press (vol.IV).

Irwin, T. H. (1979). Plato. Gorgias. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Irwin, T. H. (1993) “Say What You Believe.” In: Apeiron 26:1-16 – Virtue Love and Form: Essays in Memory of Gregory Vlastos. Vol. 26, eds Terence Irwin and Martha C. Nussbaum. https://doi.org/10.1515/apeiron.1993.26.3-4.1

Kahn, C. H. (1983). Drama and Dialetic in Plato's Gorgias. In; Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy (ed. Julia Annas). In: Oxford Tudies in Ancient Philosophy 1, p. 75-121.

Levy, D. (2014). “Socrates vs. Callicles: Examination & Ridicule in Plato’s Gorgias”. In: PLATO JOURNAL: The Journal of the International Plato Society 13, 27-36. https://doi.org/10.14195/2183-4105_13_2

Lopes, D. R. N. (2011). Górgias de Platão. Tradução, ensaio introdutório e notas. São Paulo: Perspectiva. Fapesp.

McComiskey, B. (2002). Gorgias and the New Sophistic Rhetoric. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press

McKim, R. (1988). “Shame and Truth in Plato’s Gorgias”. In: Griswold, C. Platonic Writings / Platonic Readings. New York: Routledge.

Muniz, F. P. (2011). A potência da aparência: um estudo sobre a sensaçãoe o prazer nos Diálogos de Platão. São Paulo: Annablume, 2011.

Moss, J. (2005). Shame, Pleasure and the Divided Soul. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy. Oxford: Carendon.

Nussbaum, M. A fragilidade da bondade: fortuna e ética na tragédia e na filosofia grega. São. Paulo, Martins Fontes, 2009

Nightingale, A. (1995). Genres in Dialogue: Plato and the Construct of Philosophy. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Rudebusch, G. (1992). "Callicles’ Hedonism." In : Ancient Philosophy 12.1, p. 53-71. https://doi.org/10.5840/ancientphil199212144

Santas, G. X. (1979). Socrates: Philosophy in Plato's Early Dialogues. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Vlastos, G. (1995). “Was Polus Refuted?” In: Graham, D. (ed). Studies in Greek Philosophy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, p. 60-64.

Published
2019-12-05
How to Cite
Freitas, L. (2019). A Vergonha Filosófica contra a Adulação Retórica no Górgias de Platão. Journal of Ancient Philosophy, 13(2), 65-95. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.1981-9471.v13i2p65-95
Section
Articles